A casement – window is hinged on the side of the sash. An awning – window is hinged on the top of the sash. A hopper – window is hinged on the bottom.
A double hung is a window that both the top and bottom sash slide vertically past each other. They normally have full screens on the outside so you can vent from the top or bottom. Most manufacturers make the sashes tilt in for easy cleaning.
A single hung window is a window that the top sash is stationary and the bottom sash slides vertically. The advantage to a single hung is, they are less expensive than a double hung. The disadvantage, you need to clean the upper sash from the outside and you can only open the bottom sash for ventilation.
A sliding window the sashes slide open and closed horizontally. There are single slide and windows that both sashes operate, like the single hung and double hung. The advantage to a sliding window is that gravity doesn’t work against them, so there are no springs or balances to fail unlike the double and single hung windows.